The liver is a highly under-appreciated organ. In the post, I’ll try and explain what the liver does, the diseases which can affect it and end with tips to maintain it in top shape.
Your liver is a one and a half kg organ that sits behind your right rib cage. If you did not have your liver, you would not be able to process nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals from your food. Your body would not get rid of all the toxins and microbes. Your blood would probably never clot! The liver plays a vital role in maintaining the body’s metabolic balance.
As the liver performs a variety of important functions it is extremely vulnerable to a variety of metabolic, toxic, microbial, circulatory and cancerous insults. Awareness of the liver’s functions and what all can cause liver disease can help you take the road to great health.
Let’s start with a few commonly known diseases that can affect the liver:
- Fatty Liver: This disease was traditionally known to occur in association with excessive alcohol intake but now the non-alcoholic variant is reaching epidemic proportions in the developed countries. Known to occur in association with metabolic syndrome consisting of hypertension, diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidemia this disease occurs because of faulty fat metabolism in the liver. Prevention is the best treatment and if uncontrolled can even end up in liver failure.
- Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver that is caused by a group of viruses that have particular affinity for the liver. Out of these, hepatitis A and E are caused by eating food contaminated with the virus. Hepatitis B, C and D are acquired through blood, body fluids and by unprotected sexual contact.
- Alcoholic hepatitis is inflammation (swelling) of the liver due to ingestion of alcohol.
- Cirrhosis or scarring of the liver is caused mostly due to alcohol intake, viral infection due to hepatitis B and C , bile duct disease or iron overload. It is among the top 10 causes of death in the world. The liver ceases to function normally due to irreversible damage. It progresses gradually and can lead to end stage liver disease.
- Drug induced damage caused due to the various medicines we take and chemicals we are exposed to. As liver is the major detoxifying organ in the body, it is subject to an enormous variety of drugs and chemicals. Always be careful when consuming medicines. Even over the counter medications like paracetamol can cause fulminant liver failure. Never take medications beyond the recommended dosage. It is always better to consult a doctor before taking medications and follow up at the slightest evidence of ill health. Certain herbal medications could also cause damage to the liver and so can medications for tuberculosis.
- Liver cancer can be caused by many factors including viral infections (hepatitis B and C), chronic alcoholism, certain food contaminants, genetic factors, cirrhosis of the liver.
What are the symptoms of liver disease?
This depends on the onset and rapidity of progression of liver damage.
In case of acute liver damage (due to drugs, toxins, viral hepatitis A, B or E), there may be fever with yellowish discoloration of sclera (the white of the eye), skin and urine. In most cases this may be self-limiting. In a small percentage, this may progress to fulminant liver failure leading to coma, altered blood clotting, kidney failure, secondary infections and may even require liver transplantation.
In chronic liver damage (due to hepatitis B, C or alcohol), the symptoms would be more gradual in onset:
- Jaundice or yellowish discoloration of skin and the white of the eye.
- Swelling especially in the legs and feet due to low protein levels.
- Enlargement of breasts known as gynecomastia (in a male).
- Reddish spider like discolorations (spider nevi) beneath the skin especially over the chest.
- Accumulation of fluid (ascites) in the abdomen giving it a protruded appearance.
- Problems with clotting of blood
- Vomiting of blood or blood in stools
- Altered senses with change in behavior, confusion, forgetfulness and other symptoms related to the brain also known as hepatic encephalopathy.
- Gradual worsening of kidney function
The above symptoms are not comprehensive and it is best to consult a doctor at the earliest onset of any of the above.
Tips for a healthy liver:
Diet and Alcohol: A balanced diet with low fat content would be well suited to prevent fatty liver. Alcohol is best avoided.
Exercise: Plays a role in controlling cholesterol and in the metabolism of fat thus indirectly protecting the liver.
Vaccination: Hepatitis B is preventable by vaccination. Three shots of the hepatitis B vaccine taken over three months can provide long term protection against the dreaded disease.
Hygienic food and drinking water: Hepatitis A and E are known to spread via the oral route. Think twice before having road side delicacies! Boil the water that you intend to drink. It is the best way to prevent communicable diseases.
Avoid self-medication: Various drugs can damage the liver if taken indiscriminately
Regular check-ups: Once diagnosed with liver disease, be regular in follow ups with the doctor. Reversible damage can become irreversible if neglected.
This World Liver day, let’s strive not to abuse our liver, one of the most useful organs that we have. Let’s treat it with the love and respect it deserves.